Research and Reports

Alpha-Stim microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation research listed by indication, research methodology, primary investigator, title and year in chronological order with the most recent publication listed first. In addition to being able to download and read most of the research on Alpha-Stim, comprehensive annotated abstracts can be found for most of these studies by clicking on the title of the article. Graphic summaries of each indication are also provided for a quick snapshot of the results of these studies.

Our research on cranial electrotherapy stimulation is so good even our competitors use it. Every study included in this presentation is exclusively on patented Alpha-Stim technology. It should not be applied to other devices, even in the same category, because the waveform parameters are very different. After all, morphine and aspirin are both in the analgesics category but have very different effects and adverse events.

Click to view the bibliography in PDF

This bibliography is divided into the following sections:

Anxiety
Insomnia
Depression
Pain
Mechanistic Studies
Review Articles

 

Anxiety

Graphic Summary for Anxiety StudiesDownload PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Hill, Nolan. The Effects of Alpha Stimulation on Induced Anxiety. 2015. Digital Commons @ ACU, Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 6. http://digitalcommons.acu.edu/etd/6. Download Article

LU Ling, HU Jun. A Comparative study of anxiety disorders treatment with Paroxetine in combination with cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy. Medical Innovation of China, 11(08):080-082, 2014. Download Article in English or Download Article in Chinese

Barclay TH, Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164:171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013. Download Article

Lee, S-H, Kim, W-Y, Lee C-H, Min, T-J, Lee Y-S, Kim J-H. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety, pain and endocrine response. Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(6) 1788–1795. Download Article

Kolesos ON, Osionwo HO, Akkhigbe. The role of relaxation therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria. ISOR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; 10(4): 51-57. Download Article

Strentzsch, Julie A. An examination of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on alpha-amylase levels, cortisol levels and state-trait anxiety scores in the chronically mentally ill. Doctoral Dissertation. 2008. Saint Mary’s University, San Antonio, Texas.

Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and the reduction of stress symptoms in a sheriff’s jail security and patrol officer population: a pilot study. American Jails. 2008; 22(5): 32-38. Download Article

Kim, Hyun Jung, Kim, Woon Young, Lee, Yoon Sook, Chang, Moon Seok, Kim, Jae Hwan, and Park, Young Cheol The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Preoperative Anxiety and Hemodynamic Responses. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 55(6): 657- 661. Download Article

Chen Yixin, Yu Lin, Zhang Jiuping, Li Lejia, Chen Tunong, Chen Yi. Results of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to children with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2007; 19(4):203-205. Download Article in English or Download Article in Chinese

Winick, Reid L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Safe and Effective Low Cost Means of Anxiety Control in a Dental Practice. General Dentistry. 1999; 47(1):50-55. Download Article

Voris, Marshall D. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Among Outpatient Psychiatric Patients, Impulse Control Parolees and Pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute Newsletter. 1995. Dallas and Corpus Cristi, Texas. Download Article

Gibson, Thomas H. and O’Hair, Donald E. Cranial Application of Low Level Transcranial Electrotherapy vs. Relaxation Instruction in Anxious Patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology. 1983. 152 pages. Download Article

Open Clinical Trials

Mellen, Ronald R., Case, Jan and Ruiz, Deanna J. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) As a treatment for reducing stress and improving prefrontal cortex functioning in victims of domestic violence. International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology Newsletter. 48(3):12-15, 2016. Download Article

Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L., Feusner, J. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69:412-417. Download Article

Lu XY, Wang AH, Li Y, Zhang JS, Liu BX. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treating children with emotional disorders. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 9(8):96-7. Download article in English or Download article in Chinese

Overcash, Stephen J. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in Patients Suffering from Acute Anxiety Disorders. American Journal of Electromedicine. 1999; 16(1):49-51. Download Article

Case Series and Reports

Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Therapy to Treat Behavioral Health Symptoms in a Combat Operational Setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412. Download Article

Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA and Platoni KT.  Efficacy of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Anxiety, PTSD, Insomnia, and Depression: US Military Service Members and Veterans Self Reports. The Army Medical Department Journal.  October-December 2014:46-54. Download Article

Insomnia

Graphic Summary of Insomnia StudiesDownload PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Lande, R. Gregory and Gragnani, Cynthia. Efficacy of cranial electric stimulation for the treatment of insomnia: A randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(1):8-13, 2013. Download Article

Case Series and Reports

Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Therapy to Treat Behavioral Health Symptoms in a Combat Operational Setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412. Download Article

Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the Horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000. Download Article

Depression

Graphic Summary of Depression StudiesDownload PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Barclay TH, Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164:171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013. Download Article

Amr, Mostafa, El-Wasify, Mahmoud, Elmaadawi, Ahmed, Roberts, Jeannie, and El-Mallakn, Rif. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronically Symptomatic Bipolar Patients. Journal of ECT.  2013; 29(2): 31-32. Download Article

Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Reducing Sheriff’s Officers’ Symptoms of Depression Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Control Experimental Study. The Correctional Psychologist. 2009; 41(1):9-15. Download Article

Chen Yixin, Yu Lin, Zhang Jiuping, Li Lejia, Chen Tunong, Chen Yi. Results of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to children with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2007; 19(4):203-205. Download Article in English or Download Article in Chinese

Open Clinical Trials

Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L., Feusner, J. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69:412-417. Download Article

Lu XY, Wang AH, Li Y, Zhang JS, Liu BX. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treating children with emotional disorders. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 9(8):96-7. Download article in English or Download article in Chinese.

Case Series and Reports

Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Therapy to Treat Behavioral Health Symptoms in a Combat Operational Setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412. Download Article

Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA and Platoni KT.  Efficacy of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Anxiety, PTSD, Insomnia, and Depression: US Military Service Members and Veterans Self Reports. The Army Medical Department Journal.  October-December 2014:46-54. Download Article

Pain

Graphic Summary of Pain Studies – Download PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013 Dec;14(4):327-335. Download article

Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Janet E. and Bourguignon, Cheryl. A randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study of the effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in brain pain processing regions in individuals with fibromyalgia. Explore. 2013; 9(1):32-40. Download article

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana, Jensen, Mark P., Richards, J. Scott, Holmes, Sally Ann, Parachuri, Rama, Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi and Price, Larry R. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2011; 34(3):285-296. Download article

Rintala, Diana H., Tan, Gabriel, Willson, Pamela , Bryant, Mon S., and Lai, Eugene C. H. Feasibility of Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Pain in Persons with parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s Disease. 2010. 8 pages. Download Article

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Treat Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury.Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2006; 43(4):461-474. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006. Download Article

Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology.  2004; 8(2). Download Article

Tan, G., Rintala, D., Herrington, R., Yang, J., Wade, W., Vasilev, C. and Shanti, B.F. Treating Spinal Cord Injury Pain With Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2003; 26(3). Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 2-4, 2003. Download Poster

Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The Treatment of Fibromyalgia with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 7(2):72-78. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999. Download Article

Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K, Bruce J, Slauterbeck J. The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.

Heffernan, Michael. The Effect of Variable Microcurrents on EEG Spectrum and Pain Control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine. 1997; 4(10):4-11. Download Article

Zimmerman, Stephen I, & Lerner, Fred N. Biofeedback and Electromedicine Reduce the Cycle of Pain Spasm Pain in Low Back Patients. Medical Electronics. June 1989; 117:108-120. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987. Download Article

Roth, Peter M, & Thrash, William J. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Pain Associated with Orthodontic Tooth Movement. American Journal of Orthodontics. 1986; 90(2):132-138. Download Article

Open Clinical Trials

Tan, Gabriel, Dao, Tam K., Smith, Donna L., Robinson, Andrew and Jensen, Mark P. Incorporating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Therapies to Expand Psychological Services to Veterans Suffering From Chronic Pain. Psychological Services. 2010; 7(3):148–161. Download Article

Holubec, Jerry T. Cumulative Response From Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) for Chronic Pain Practical Pain Management. 2009; 9(9):80-83. Download Article

Tae-Kyu Lee, Kwan-Sung Lee, Shin-Soo Jeun, Young-Kil Hong, Chun-Kun Park, Joon-Ki, Moon-Chan Kim. The control of chronic pain using Microcurrent Electrical Therapy and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College Of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery, April 14, 2004.

Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B. The Use of Microcurrent Electrical Therapy and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in Pain Control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2001; 2(2):99-102. Download Article

Case Series and Reports

Keizer B, Sposato L, and Yancosek K. A Progressive Treatment for a Chronic Progressive Disease: The War Against Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. The Pain Practitioner. 2016; 6(1):26-31. Download Article

Smith, Ray B. Is Microcurrent Stimulation Effective in Pain Management? An Additional Perspective. American Journal of Pain Management. 2001; 11(2):62-66. Download Article

Alpher, Elliott J. and Kirsch, Daniel L. Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. American Journal of Pain Management, 8(4):124-128, 1998. Download Article

Bauer, William. Electrical Treatment of Severe Head and Neck Cancer Pain. Archives of Otolaryngology. 1983; 109(6):382-383. Download Article

 

Mechanistic Studies

Qiao Jainping, Weng Shenhong, Wang Pengwei, Long Jun, and Wang Zhishun. Normalization of Intrinsic Neural Circuits Governing Tourette’s Syndrome Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2015 May;62(5): 1272-80. Download Article

Feusner, J. D., Madsen, S., Moody, T. D., Bohon, C., Hembacher, E., Bookheimer, S. Y. and Bystritsky. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on resting state brain activity. Brain and Behavior. 2012. Pp 1-10. Download Article

Kennerly, Richard. Changes in Quantitative EEG and Low Resolution Tomography Following Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Ph.D. Dissertation, the University of North Texas. 2006. 529 pp., 81 tables, 233 figures, 171 references. Download Article

Kennerly, Richard. QEEG Analysis of Cranial Electrotherapy: A Pilot Study. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2004; (8)2. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation annual conference, September 18-21, 2003 in Houston, Texas. Download Article

Schroeder, M.J., and Barr, R.E. Quantitative Analysis of Electroencephalogram During Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2001; 112:2075-2083. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin, 191 pages, 1999. Download Article

Heffernan, Michael. Comparative Effects of Microcurrent Stimulation on EEG Spectrum and Correlation Dimension. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science. 1996; 31(3):202-209. Download Article

Review Articles

Massoumi L. Benefits of Alpha-Stim. The Carlat Report: Psychiatry. 2016; 14(11 &12): 1,4-5. Download Article

Moehringer J and Knabe MB. Transdermal electrical neurostimulation therapies in psychiatry: A review of the evidence. Psychiatric Annals, 46(10):589-593. Posted October 11, 2016.

Libretto S, Hilton L, Gordon S, and Zhang W. Effects of Integrative PTSD Treatment in a Military Health Setting. Energy Psychology. 2015; 7(2):33-44. Download article

Anderson, Joel G., Kebaish, Samy A., Lewis, Janet E., and Taylor, Ann G. Effects of Cranial Electrical Stimulation on Activity in Regions of the Basal Ganglia in Individuals with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2014; 20(3): 206-207. Download Article

Horowitz, Sala. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Alternative and Complementary Therapies.  2013; 19(4):188-193. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Nichols, Francine. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression and insomnia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2013; 36(1):169-176. http://www.psych.theclinics.com. Download Article

Farina Woodbury, Michael A. Efecto de la Microcorriente Sobre Síntomas, de Ansiedad, Depresión, Insomnio y Dolor. Galenus. 2008; 1(5):15-18. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. CES in the Treatment of Insomnia: A Review and Meta-Analysis Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(7):28-39. Download Article

Tan Gabriel and Jensen Mark P. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Into Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment. In Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Management: a Guidebook for Program Development and Excellence of Treatment. Schatman and Campbell (editors). Taylor & Francis. 2007. Pp. 75-99. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Depression – Part 1. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(4):33-41. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall.Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Depression – Part 2. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(5):32-40. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders – Part 1. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(2):40-47. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Statistical Considerations – Part 2. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(3):22-39. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation For the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia and Other Conditions. Insert: Giordano, James. Illustrating how CES works. Natural Medicine. 2006; 23:118-120. Download Article

Gilula, Marshall F. and Barach, Paul R. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation: a Safe Neuromedical Treatment for Anxiety, Depression or Insomnia. Southern Medical Journal. 2004; 97(12):1269-1270. Download Article

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review. NeuroRehabilitation. 2000; 14(2):85-94. Download Article