Research and Reports

Through the years, there have been more than 100 studies, clinical trials and research projects on Alpha-Stim’s microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. All of this research has been compiled and made available here, in order to help you in your research of proven effective treatments for anxiety, insomnia, depression and pain. In addition to being able to download and read most of the research on Alpha-Stim, you can find comprehensive annotated abstracts for most of these studies by clicking on the title of the article. Graphic summaries of each indication are also provided for a quick snapshot of the results of these studies.

This page includes research done exclusively on patented Alpha-Stim technology only. It should not be applied to other devices, even in the same category, because the waveform parameters are very different. After all, morphine and aspirin are both in the analgesics category but have very different effects and adverse events.

Click to view PDF of Bibliography

This bibliography is divided into the following sections:

Anxiety
Insomnia
Depression
Pain
Mechanistic Studies
Review Articles

Anxiety

Graphic Summary for Anxiety StudiesDownload PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Liu, E., Zhang, W., Wang, J., Zhao, F., & Bai, Y. Acupuncture combined with cranial electrotherapy stimulation on generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion. 2020; 40(11).

Ren, Y., Zhu, Y., Yang, J., & Ding, F. Efficacy of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Anxiety and Sleep Qualities Among Elderly Patients with Chronic Sleep Disorders. Chinese Journal Modern Nursing. 2019; 25(24).

Roh, HT. & So, W-Y. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation affects mood state but not levels of peripheral neurotrophic factors or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Technology and health care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine. 2017; 25(3):403–412.

Ou, Y. & Li, C. Sertraline combined Alpha-Stim clinical observations on the treatment of 30 cases of generalized anxiety disorder. Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy. 2015; 24(17):73-75.

Hill, Nolan. The effects of alpha stimulation on induced anxiety. 2015. Digital Commons @ ACU, Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 6. http://digitalcommons.acu.edu/etd/6. Download Article

LU Ling, HU Jun. A comparative study of anxiety disorders treatment with Paroxetine in combination with cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy. Medical Innovation of China, 11(08):080-082, 2014. Download Article in English or Download Article in Chinese

Kong, J., Wu, J., Jiang, X., et al. Treatment of Sleep Disorder with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Combined with Psychological Counseling in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Study. Chinese Journal of Medicinal Guide. 2014; 921, 16(6):(Serial No.128).

Wei Y., Yang Z., Pan H., Zhao S-J., Fang J-Z. Clinical Efficacy of Assisted Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Treatment on Depression. Neural Injury and Functional Reconstruction. July 2014, 9(4):317.

Barclay TH, Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164:171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013. Download Article

Lee, S-H, Kim, W-Y, Lee C-H, Min, T-J, Lee Y-S, Kim J-H. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety, pain and endocrine response. Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(6) 1788–1795. Download Article

Koleoso ON, Osionwo HO, Akkhigbe. The role of relaxation therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria. ISOR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; 10(4): 51-57. Download Article

Qin, S., Sheng, J., Guo, W., Zhang, X. Curative effect of CES as adjuvant therapy on elderly patients with chronic insomnia. Practical Geriatrics. 2013; Vol. 27, No. 5:399-402.

Strentzsch, Julie A. An examination of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on alpha-amylase levels, cortisol levels and state-trait anxiety scores in the chronically mentally ill. Doctoral Dissertation. 2008. Saint Mary’s University, San Antonio, Texas.

Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and the reduction of stress symptoms in a sheriff’s jail security and patrol officer population: a pilot study. American Jails. 2008; 22(5): 32-38. Download Article

Kim, Hyun Jung, Kim, Woon Young, Lee, Yoon Sook, Chang, Moon Seok, Kim, Jae Hwan, and Park, Young Cheol The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety and hemodynamic responses. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 55(6): 657- 661. Download Article (English) Download Article (Korean)

Kim, H.J., Kim W.Y., Lee, Y.S., Chang, M.S., Kim, J.H., & Park, Y.C. The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety and hemodynamic responses. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 55:657-661.

Chen Yixin, Yu Lin, Zhang Jiuping, Li Lejia, Chen Tunong, Chen Yi. Results of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to children with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2007; 19(4):203-205. Download Article in English or Download Article in Chinese

Winick, Reid L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a safe and effective low cost means of anxiety control in a dental practice. General Dentistry. 1999; 47(1):50-55. Download Article

Voris, Marshall D. An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute Newsletter. 1995. Dallas and Corpus Cristi, Texas. Download Article

Gibson, Thomas H. and O’Hair, Donald E. Cranial application of low level transcranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instruction in anxious patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology. 1983. 152 pages. Download Article

Open Clinical Trials

Griffiths, C., Leathlean, C., Smart, D., Zafar, A., Hall, C-L., & Deeks, S. Alpha-Stim Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) for Anxiety Treatment: Outcomes in a United Kingdom (UK) Primary Care Practice. Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2021, 11: 186-201. Download Article

Morriss R, Price L. Differential effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on changes in anxiety and depression symptoms over time in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2020, 277: 785-788. Download Article

Morriss R, Xydopoulos G, Craven M, Price L, Fordham R. Clinical effectiveness and cost minimisation model of Alpha-Stim cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treatment seeking patients with moderate to severe generalised anxiety disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019, June; 253:426-437. Download Article

Platoni K, Oakley R, Haltiwanger SG, Kirsch TB, Marksberry J and Price LR. First responder research shows that electrical brain stimulation helps control anxiety, insomnia, and depression. JJ Psych Behav Sci. 2019; 6(1): 25-31. Download Article

Kirsch TB, Kuhn J, Price LR, Marksberry J, Haltiwanger SG. A novel medical device that relieves anxiety, depression and pain while improving sleep in a population of teachers. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 8:334. Download Article

Morrow DJ, Fischer EP, Walder AM, Jubran NI. Nonopioid Alternatives to Addressing Pain Intensity: A Retrospective Look at Two Noninvasive Pain Treatment Devices. Federal Practitioner. 2019, 36(4):181-187. Download Article

Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2018, 55(2): 198–206. Download Abstract

Mellen, Ronald R., Case, Jan and Ruiz, Deanna J. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) As a treatment for reducing stress and improving prefrontal cortex functioning in victims of domestic violence. International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology Newsletter. 48(3):12-15, 2016. Download Article

Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L., Feusner, J. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69:412-417. Download Article

Lu XY, Wang AH, Li Y, Zhang JS, Liu BX. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treating children with emotional disorders. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 9(8):96-7. Download article in English or Download article in Chinese

Overcash, Stephen J. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in patients suffering from acute anxiety disorders. American Journal of Electromedicine. 1999; 16(1):49-51. Download Article

Case Series and Reports

Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy to treat behavioral health symptoms in a combat operational setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412. Download Article

Kirsch, D.L., Price, L.R., Nichols, F., Marksberry, J.A., & Platoni, K.T. Military Service Member and Veteran Self-Reports of Efficacy of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Anxiety, PTSD, Insomnia, and DepressionThe Army Medical Department Journal. 2014; 46-54. Download Article

Insomnia

Graphic Summary of Insomnia StudiesDownload PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Khyatee, S., Sarker,A., & Aggarwal R. Impact of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Based Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Insomnia. In: Prateek M., Sharma D., Tiwari R., Sharma R., Kumar K., Kumar N. (eds) Next Generation Computing Technologies on Computational Intelligence. NGCT 2018. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol 922. Springer, Singapore, 2019.

Ren, Y., Zhu, Y., Yang, J., & Ding, F. Efficacy of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Anxiety and Sleep Qualities Among Elderly Patients with Chronic Sleep Disorders. Chinese Journal Modern Nursing. 2019; 25(24).

Bie, H., Ren, L., & Li, X. A control study of a hypnotic drug plus cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of insomniaJournal Clinical Psychosomatic Disorders. 2016; Vol 22, No. 3:17-20.

Kong, J., Wu, J., Jiang, X., et al. Treatment of Sleep Disorder with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Combined with Psychological Counseling in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Study. Chinese Journal of Medicinal Guide. 2014; 921, 16(6):(Serial No.128).

Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013 Dec;14(4):327-335. Download article

Qin, S., Sheng, J., Guo, W., Zhang, X. Curative effect of CES as adjuvant therapy on elderly patients with chronic insomnia. Practical Geriatrics. 2013; Vol. 27, No. 5:399-402.

Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B.