A progressive treatment for a chronic progressive disease: The war against complex regional pain syndrome


Keizer, B., Sposato, L., & Yancosek, K. A progressive treatment for a chronic progressive disease: The war against complex regional pain syndrome. The Pain Practitioner. 2016; 6(1):26-31.

Funding Source, Location of Study or Author’s Affiliation
The Rehabilitation and Performance Psychology group at the Center for the Intrepid, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.


Key Variables

This is a case study on the use of Alpha-Stim CES and InterX Therapy Device for the treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS).

This case study followed one patient with debilitating CRPS. The study discusses his treatment course and the results he was able to achieve.

Primary Outcome Measure
The primary effectiveness endpoint was the change from baseline pain levels and functionality.

Secondary Outcome Measure
None reported.

Key Inclusion Criteria
This patient was seen at The Fort Sam Houston Center for the Intrepid clinic in San Antonio, Texas.

Key Exclusion Criteria
None reported.

Protocol Summary
This patient was treated with Alpha-Stim CES for 20 to 60 minutes. Afterward he was treated with InterX Therapy Device. The patient did three treatments in the clinic before being sent home with his own devices. He used these at home and was followed up with at three months.

Device Application Protocol
The patient was treated with 20–60 minutes of Alpha-Stim CES and InterX Therapy for 15–30 minutes.

Statistical Analysis Plan
The data was self-reported by the patient involved.


This is a single case study which involved a 52-year-old veteran. The study discussed the patients pain level as well as his functionality.

Data Analysis
This case study was beneficial in creating a blueprint for a potentially effective means of treating CRPS. The researchers noted that CRPS ranks at the top of the McGill Pain Index and it remains one of most treatment resistant causes of pain. More research with larger patient numbers and blinding methods needs to be carried out to better understand the efficacy of using CES to treat CRPS.

The researchers concluded this to be a success story and intend on treating more CRPS patients with the same protocol. After the subject followed the protocol at home for three months, he was no longer a candidate for ketamine infusion or surgery and had returned to work full time.

Single case study and limitations associated with small sample size.

Study Quality: FAIR